Kleindeutschland – When New York was the 3rd largest German-speaking city on Earth

The story of immigration in New York is impossibly checkered; after all, more than 100 languages are spoken in the city, and learning that there’s a Bukharian community here, or a Sri Lankan community there usually only elicits, at most, brief casual surprise.

People are flooding in from all over the world, in search of what everyone has always sought in this city of dreams.  Historically speaking, immigration to New York usually conjures up those old photos and newsreels of Italians and Eastern Europeans hobbling through Ellis Island, carrying barely more than the clothes on their backs.  Or also the gigantic influx of Irish that lasted for many many decades, peaking during the mid-19th century.  Naturally, almost all ethnicities of  immigrants, past and present, are visible in shops, neighborhoods, old signs, restaurants, places of worship, etc.

It is, however, surprisingly rare to find physical evidence of one of the hugest waves of influx the city has ever known – that of people hailing from the provinces that became Germany.

During the mid-19th century, New York was the 3rd largest German speaking city in the WORLD (!), after Berlin and Vienna.  At one point, 1 out of 4 New Yorkers claimed German descent.

Tompkins Square Park –  now more well-known for its place at the heart of late-20th century East Village bohemia, for its bums, and for its Hare Krishnas –  was once called “Weisse Garten”.

In the mid-1800’s, the park was at the heart of Kleindeutschland (“Little Germany”), a huge sprawl of a neighborhood that covered the Lower East Side and the East Village.

The Freie Bibliothek und Lesehalle, or Free Library and Reading Room was opened in 1884 and is the oldest building in Manhattan to still be used as a library. The adjacent Stuyvesant Polyclinic Hospital provided health care to the community…  (2nd Avenue, East Village)

Today, walk through any high-density neighborhood immigrant neighborhood, such as Chinatown, and one becomes engulfed by the culture – the markets, the smells, the languages, the signage – One can imagine that Kleindeutschland had similar features.

There would have been the sounds of German (then still an exotic language) on the street. Papers like Der Staats Zeitung would have graced newsstands, and the smell of sausages, sauerkraut and other German fare would have wafted out of homes and beer gardens.

The beer gardens were the centers of the community – meetingplaces where people young and old could gather, talk, carouse, eat, and drink lager.  Music pumping at all hours of day and night; pool tables, bowling…

The Atlantic Garden on the Bowery – in 1872

The Atlantic Garden on the Bowery

Social clubs (“Vereines”) and singing societies, where German musical traditions were kept alive, were also very much part of the community’s fabric.  Countless breweries sprang up to water the saloons and beer gardens; and also, to fulfill a growing demand among non-Germans for German-style lager, a trend that led to the types of commercial beer most popular in America to this day.  Though it was the following wave of Jewish immigrants that made them synonymous with NY, Germans were the first to open delicatessens, which like today’s mom-and-pop ethnic markets, sold food that could not be found elsewhere.

Also, much like many of today’s mom-and-pop ethnic restaurants, one could dine on the cheap, and this also attracted non-Germans, many of whom were also in the neighborhood to visit the theaters and clubs of Avenue B (then known as a “German Broadway”).

St. Mark’s Place, East Village

Some Germans also brought with them new social and political ideas which were becoming very much in fashion in the old country – the homeland of Karl Marx and others of his ilk.   German immigrants in New York and Chicago were very much integral to the early American labor movement.  Situated on Broadway in the Village, Pfaff’s beer cellar, which one has said “was the Andy Warhol factory, the Studio 54, the Algonquin Round Table all rolled into one”,  became a famous meeting ground for radicals, intellectuals and artists, such as Walt Whitman.

Reality is harsh, however – and for every romantic reminiscence, there was certainly a matching tragedy – poverty, overcrowding, hunger, crime…  There is one heart-breaking account of a mother and two children who froze to death in an alley near Avenue B and 10th Street – now, as then, in the middle a hotbed of nightlife.

Gradually, Kleindeutschland fell into decline, as many moved to other, more attractive, parts of the city, particularly Yorkville along the river on the Upper East Side.  The final nail was driven into the neighborhood’s coffin on June 15, 1904.  On that day, as they had done every June for years, members of St. Mark’s Evangelical Lutheran Church boarded the General Slocum, a steamship chartered to bring them to a picnic on the north shore of Long Island.  At the East River’s notorious Hell Gate, the vessel caught fire and sank, killing more than a thousand people, most of whom lived in Kleindeutschland.  This horror tore the community apart, and its remaining residents moved out.

General Slocum disaster, 1904

Meanwhile, Yorkville was thriving, as another “German Broadway” sprouted along East 86th Street, and breweries opened near the river.  The display of prosperity was not destined to last very long however.  When World War 1 hit, and sauerkraut became “liberty cabbage”, all things Teutonic dove deeply out of favor with the general public.  The German community laid low, some even anglicized their names.

Yorkville, now also home to other Central and Eastern European groups, retained its Germanness into the 1920’s and 1930’s, though the latter decade found it deeply divided between pro- and anti- Nazi sentiment.  I believe the pro- side was in the minority, but still had a large enough presence to create some of the strangest New York photos from the past:  the swastika being carried alongside the American flag, and Nazi rallies at Madison Square Garden:

Nazi rally at Madison Square Garden, 1930’s

Nazi parade in Yorkville, Manhattan. 1930’s

Anti-Nazi rally, New York, 1937

German immigration had been reduced to a trickle through the first half of the 20th century.  With no new arrivals to counter the assimilation of the preceding generations, and after enduring decades of animosity, German culture was all but wiped off the face of New York.  All that remains are people’s last names, beer culture, delis, hot dogs, pretzels, and old signage here and there.  The Lower East Side became Jewish and Eastern European, then Hispanic, and then the haunt of rock clubs, art, and nightlife.

A few restaurants survived into the late 20th and early 21st centuries – now there are only a smattering deep in the outer boroughs, with a rapidly aging clientele.  Some new places have opened in their stead- Zum Schneider on Ave C, the Radegast Beer Garden in Williamsburg, for instance; however, they bear no connection to New York’s German past, and serve a non-German clientele.

Like its former Dutch-ness, and British-ness, New York’s German-ness has completely sunk beneath the waves of history.

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About ventilateblog

http://www.createdbymattlogan.com/ MUSIC Classically trained cellist. Attended Peabody Conservatory of Johns Hopkins University - degree in Music Composition, and three years of recording arts and audio electrical engineering. Multiple works for chamber groups and orchestra have been produced and performed. Singer-songwriter with rock and folk roots.. Electronica. Today, it's about mashing together all these things into improbable hybrids. Also, a longtime educator of music. PHOTOGRAPHY Unpredictable and in the moment is what I love. Streets, architecture, and people. Ruined places. History. Frozen moments. Great love for imagines wrought by beautiful mystery of film and vintage cheapy cameras. WRITING The vague, ephemeral. The historical - the ghosts behind the veil of time. Delving deeply into the intricacies of our physical and cultural world. Relaying memory and longing. And sometimes the absurd. Life runs deep. Life

Posted on May 14, 2012, in NYC past, Uncategorized and tagged , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 4 Comments.

  1. Thank you for sharing! It’s right up my alley since I’ve been interning at the Wende Museum in Culver City. It’s a Cold War history museum and archives. I’ve been getting a lot of exposure to the German (specifically East Geman) and Soviet culture and language.

  2. The fantastic Ephemeral NY blog posted this today about Avenue B’s German Broadway:

    http://ephemeralnewyork.wordpress.com/2012/06/18/when-avenue-b-was-the-german-broadway/

  3. Terrific piece! Thank you!

  4. Thank you for the informative post. I have vague memories about Yorkville’s German establishments in the 1970’s — Bremen House, Hofbrau House, Olga’s, and others. The Schaller and Weber market on second Avenue is the only remnant I know of.

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